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The Tool Wear of the Tool in high speed machining condition

With the development of high-speed and high-power CNC machine tools, the increase of the spindle speed of the machine tool, the improvement of the dynamic balance performance of the system, the theory of the cutting mechanism is perfect, and the structural design of the tool and the improvement of the material properties, especially in CAE, CAD, CAM, CAPP and other related software technology development, to promote the cutting technology into the high-speed cutting stage. High-speed cutting has been widely used in precision molds, aerospace and other manufacturing industries, resulting in significant economic benefits, and extended to other applications. In the High-speed cutting process, the cutting force and cutting temperature is high, mechanical friction, adhesion, chemical wear, damage and deformation lead to rapid tool wear and peeling and fracture damage. So high-speed cutting tool should have a high thermal shock resistance and wear resistance.

The tool life of the High-speed cutting tool will be longer than the universal tool, and it also has higher reliability, the installation precision and cutting performance is excellent. Ultra-fine cemented carbide, carbide coating and composite SiN ceramic, diamond film coating tool, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN), PCD tool have high thermal hardness and fatigue strength, have Broad application prospects. In high speed machining field, they are used for machining steel, cast iron and precision high-speed machining of non-ferrous metal or non-metallic materials. And then we will analyzed the wear type of ceramic tool, cbn inserts, diamond tools, coating inserts in high speed cutting condition.

1. 1 Ceramic tool
Ceramic materials characteristics, such high melting point, high hardness, good chemical stability and high wear resistance, widely used in high-speed cutting, high-speed dry cutting and hard turning. In high-speed machining, the cutting temperature is high and the cutting pressure is large. The main wear effects of ceramic tool are mechanical wear and chemical wear. The main wear mechanism includes abrasive wear, adhesive wear, chemical reaction, diffusion wear, oxidation wear and so on.
The wear of the Ceramic tool and cutting conditions, like high temperature caused by adhesive wear, chemical reaction, oxidation wear and diffusion wear is closely related. Alumina-based ceramics are mainly used for processing hardened steel and cast iron, SiN ceramics are mainly used for processing cast iron, superalloys and nickel-based alloy.

1.2Cubic Boron Nitride Tools

Cubic boron nitride, the molecular formula BN, its structure is similar to diamond. Its hardness is 8000-9000, heat resistance is 1400℃, high wear resistance. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) is a type polycrystalline materials sintered together by a combined phase at high temperature and high pressure, suitable for all kinds of ferrous metal cutting. CBN tool is considered to be better than hard alloy (WC) tools. Wear mechanism CBN cutting process due to high temperature and high pressure, as well as with the rake face friction, the wear mechanism includes: phase change wear and oxidation wear; adhesive wear; wear; particles peeling and micro-cutting edge.

1. 3 Diamond Tools
PCBN tool high-speed cutting austenitic high manganese steel, high manganese steel grinding debris in the local temperature quickly in the medium temperature (400~750 ℃), in this temperature range, to avoid serious wear and tear to prevent the tool brittle fracture and failure.

1. 4 Coated tool
The coating tool has a strong anti-oxidation and anti-bonding properties, also has a good wear resistance and crescent worn wear capacity at the same time, coating friction coefficient is low, can effectively reduce the cutting force and cutting temperature, greatly improve tool durability. In the process of high-speed milling of aluminum-based composites SiC fine-grained reinforced particles with a coated carbide tool, the tip side coating is peeled off while creating a groove along the cutting direction of the main cutting edge, Layer off and abrasive wear.

1. 5 Carbide tool
Carbide tool material has good toughness, impact resistance, versatility, etc, IT use coating technology, add one or more layers of high-performance materials on the carbide, carbide tools can not only has its own advantages, but also as a high-speed cutting tool. Coated carbide can achieve good results when high-speed cutting steel and cast iron, the current tool coating technology can be divided into two categories CVD (chemical vapor deposition) and PVD physical vapor deposition) technology. The results show that the main failure mode of the coated cemented carbide tool is the wear of the rake face when machining high hardness materials. The failure of the fine grain cemented carbide tool is mainly the wear and peeling of the raindrops.

This article show that the wear patterns of all the cutting tools which include ceramic cutters, cbn inserts and carbide insert in the high cutting speed condition. Ceramic tool mainly occurs adhesive wear, chemical reaction, oxidation wear and diffusion wear. Cubic boron nitride mainly occurs diffusion wear. The coating tool mainly stripped and abrasive wear.

Halnn always made researchment on the cutting tools material more than 10 years, and have much experience on superhard cutting tools, like diamond tools and pcbn tools. If you have any problems on machining high hardness workpieces with high hardness materials, please feel free to contact with us halnntools@gmail.com, Or leave message for me Whatsapp:+8618695866134, Or check our web: www.halnntools.com

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